General Principles for Psychotherapeutic Interventions in Children and Adolescents PMC

Your loved one is more likely to get defensive if they’re faced with a group of people. Another is they can’t meet responsibilities at work, home, or school because of addiction. For example, if they have an addiction to alcoholic beverages, check for bloodshot eyes or the smell of alcohol on their breath.

A structured approach to positive behavioral change

But, withadequate planning, rigorous evaluation of these kinds ofinterventions should be possible through randomized trials,especially by making use of the ‘stepped wedge’ approach of a phasedintroduction of measures in different communities over a period oftime (Brown andLilford, 2006). Many health systems research studies maybe considered as implementation research, and most could beconsidered as complex interventions, as discussed in Sections 2.3.3 and 2.3.4. In terms of implementation, the matrix of elements (ranked by frequencyfor different patient characteristics) functioned as a guide forcommunity practitioners, who chose the elements that matched theirsample.

Benefits of Behavioral Therapy

Make a plan to follow up.After the intervention, have a plan to follow up with your loved one. A close family member like a parent, spouse, or sibling can help them stick to their treatment or follow through with changes in behavior. Schedule the intervention for a time of day or day of the week when your loved one is less likely to be stressed or under the influence of drugs or alcohol. To avoid a no-show from the person you’re trying to help, it’s best to keep the details under wraps until the day of the intervention. An intervention is a structured process aimed at confronting an individual struggling with addiction, mental health issues, or destructive behaviors, usually to motivate them to seek help and enter a treatment program.

Comprehensive Pulmonary Rehabilitation for Patients with Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma: A Feasibility Pilot Study

an intervention is sometimes referred to as a treatment.

For example, an aim of the Strategic Plan isto “develop objective surrogate measures of outcome and clinicalchange that extend beyond symptoms, to assess if target mechanismsunderlying function, general health, and quality of life have beenmodified by treatments” (NIMH, 2015). The elements of psychosocial interventionsthemselves are not mediators or mechanisms. Similarly, the mechanism ofsocial cognition in schizophrenia may be linked more closely to theelement of “social skills training” than to the effects ofbroader intervention packages such as assertive community treatment orsupported employment. Knowledge of mechanisms can be used to honepsychosocial interventions to be optimally effective (Kazdin, 2014). In addition,an elements approach could encourage investigation of the degree towhich outcomes are mediated by nonspecific versus specific elements.Although both are critical to intervention success, the debate notedearlier regarding the relative importance of each could be advanced bythis approach. The goal of clinical assessment is to have a case formulation that would help in deciding the management.[8] Signs and symptoms as narrated by the child and caregivers or elicited by the clinician help in ascertaining the key areas that need to be addressed and also confirm or refute the presence/absence of a mental disorder.

Join A Study

Although interventions are often staged for individuals, they are also organized for people who reside in institutional settings and for communities at large. For instance, the practice of distributing free and readily available condoms is a common form of behavioral intervention with the goal of preventing sexually transmitted diseases. The goal of any type of intervention is to take action that will make a positive change in the way someone thinks or behaves and to modify or prevent self-destructive behavior. Therapeutic intervention also gives friends or family members an opportunity to directly approach their loved one in a safe and structured manner. One finding that supports this theory exists as the result of a study that did not include CBT.

  • People participating in interventions may need to be prepared to end their relationship with the person.
  • For electroconvulsive therapy, electrodes are placed on the head, and while the person is under anesthesia, a series of electrical shocks are delivered to the brain to induce a brief seizure.
  • Fals-Stewart and Schafer (1992) found that patients with obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) are highly vulnerable to abuse of drugs or alcohol because they often find their symptoms to be confusing or even nonsensical.

However, many people with depression also benefit from seeing a psychiatrist, psychologist or other mental health professional. Behavioral therapy involves a number of interventions that are designed to help the person unlearn maladaptive behaviors (for example, dependency and inability to tolerate frustration) while learning adaptive behaviors (openness to experience and conscientiousness). Exposure therapy, often used to treat phobias, is one example of a behavioral therapy. In exposure therapy, people are exposed to feared objects, activities, or situations in a safe environment.

Application Process

The treatment of such conditionsoften requires long-term monitoring, with a dependence on reliablelaboratory results and a system to track the clinical and laboratoryfindings within a single individual over time. Trials of suchinterventions must often be conducted over several years, or evendecades, to completely assess treatment efficacy. The mechanism of action of a drug used for disease control willinfluence the design of field trials to evaluate its impact. Often, the public health success of thisapproach depends critically upon case finding, and, for diseasessuch as TB and leprosy, it depends also on case holding, i.e. beingable to follow and treat each patient at regular intervals oversufficient time to eliminate the agent from the individual.

an intervention is sometimes referred to as a treatment.


  • One other interesting finding from the Randall et al. (2001) study should be noted.
  • Preparing and anticipating questions will help you make the most of your time with the doctor.
  • Therapists may use one primary approach or incorporate elements from multiple approaches depending on their training, the disorder being treated, and the needs of the person receiving treatment.
  • This book is about the evaluation of the effectiveness of health-relatedinterventions.
  • With the insights and knowledge you gain, you can learn coping and stress management skills.

In a randomized controlled trial, the elements approach was found tooutperform usual care and standard evidence-based psychosocial treatmentmanuals in both the short term (Weisz et al., 2012) and long term (Chorpita et al., 2013). Also, implementationof an elements approach to training in the Child and Adolescent MentalHealth Division of the Hawaii Department of Health resulted in decreasedtime in treatment and increased rate of improvement (Daleiden et al., 2006). Thetraining in Hawaii was facilitated by a Web-based system Top 5 Advantages of Staying in a Sober Living House that detailedthe research literature to help clinicians gather information relevantto their particular needs (i.e., which elements are most frequent inevidence-based treatments for a targeted problem with certain samplecharacteristics). Because the investigative team derived elements frommanualized interventions that are evidence based, and because by far themajority of such interventions for child mental health fall under therubric of cognitive-behavioral therapy, the elements focused oncognitive-behavioral approaches.

The purposes of field trials may change as experience with anintervention accumulates. Sometimes, particularly in early trials of anew intervention, the purpose of the study is analytic to demonstrate aneffect or to establish a principle, with little consideration as towhether the intervention is practicable at the population level fordisease control. An example might be the use of a malaria vaccine thatmust be administered monthly to be effective. Such studies are sometimescalled ‘explanatory’ or ‘proof of principle’ trials (Schwartz and Lellouch,1967). Many intervention products, and especially drugs and vaccines, are likely tooriginate from basic research in laboratories. Such products must go througha long series of tests, before they can be considered for use in the kindsof field trials that are the focus of this book.

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